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:: Volume 25, Issue 3 (Autum 2023) ::
علوم زراعی 2023, 25(3): 207-232 Back to browse issues page
The role of functional genomics studies in identifying the molecular responses of crop plants to abiotic stresses
Reza Darvishzadeh , Hamed Broushan
Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Abstract:   (627 Views)
Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle. Considering the essential role of crop plants in the production of food, fodder, oil and biofuels, it is important to evaluate their responses to environmental stresses. Plants have developed complex molecular systems to respond and adapt to environmental stress conditions such as drought, salinity, cold and heat during evolutionary processes. The response to abiotic stress is significantly different in species and even in different cultivars of the same species. Identification of plant responses to abiotic stresses has caused a great revolution in post-genome era. Physiological and molecular analyses have helped to better identify plant responses, and in this regard, Arabidopsis genome sequencing has played an important role. Quantitative phenotyping system of plants using imaging technology and its combination with information technology has facilitated the understanding of complex responses of plants to abiotic stresses. Studies on new regulatory mechanisms including use of small RNA molecules, chromatin modulation and genomic DNA modification, have enabled researchers to recognize complex plant molecular systems in response to abiotic stresses. Researchers have found that plants have types of sensors and signaling systems to respond to environmental changes and stresses. The molecular patterns of these signals are transmitted for the proper induction of the downstream molecular events. Obtaining necessary information related to DNA function at gene levels, RNA transcription and protein products, requires the use of various functional genomics methods such as next generation sequencing and genome editing, with large amounts of data. These data, which are essential information for all genes, including gene products and their functions, transcription levels, cis-regulatory elements and alternative splicing patterns, are obtained as a result of accessing the complete genome sequence. With progress in functional genomics methods, many genes related to stress tolerance can be identified and used to improve the level of tolerance of crops to environmental stresses. In this article, studies related to functional genomics for identification of complex response systems in crop plants that cause adaptation to abiotic stresses have been reviewed.


 
Keywords: Abiotic stresses, Arabidopsis, Hormone response, Signal transduction and Transcriptional regulation
Full-Text [PDF 1150 kb]   (175 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Special
Received: 2023/06/5 | Accepted: 2024/02/4 | Published: 2024/02/29
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Darvishzadeh R, Broushan H. The role of functional genomics studies in identifying the molecular responses of crop plants to abiotic stresses. علوم زراعی 2023; 25 (3) :207-232
URL: http://agrobreedjournal.ir/article-1-1308-en.html


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Volume 25, Issue 3 (Autum 2023) Back to browse issues page
نشریه علوم زراعی ایران Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences
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